However, if it is altered to fit the new key then it is a ”tonal answer”. In the context of a fugue it describes a situation where each voice enters before the previous voice has finished its subject. Viewed 1k times 12. (The presence of accidentals give a big clue when spotting key changes). It has some added notes. Summary Description Johann Sebastian Bach - WTC Book 1 - Prelude and Fugue in C-sharp major, BWV 848.ogg English: Prelude and Fugue No. In this case, Bach paired this Prelude with the Fugue (they both exhibit dance features), but without da capo. BAIN MUSC 729 Contrapuntal Techniques: J.S. Bach's Well-Tempered Clavier, Books 1 & 2 Click on an image to view a larger version which also includes a color-to-key mapping legend. The Well-Tempered Clavier, BWV 846–893, is a collection of two sets of preludes and fugues in all 24 major and minor keys, composed for solo keyboard by Johann Sebastian Bach.In Bach's time Clavier was a generic name indicating a variety of keyboard instruments, most typically a harpsichord or clavichord – but not excluding an organ.. This scale goes up without a break for three octaves (it is doubled by thirds in mm. Appendix 1: Subject and Countersubject Entries. In m. 65, the last subject appears in the Soprano key. Search • Write to us. This post is for a friend of mine, who is trying to perfect the art of wooing women using his music theory and analysis skills. Published by teoria.com. 13-17. The answer begins a perfect Þfth higher than the subject. Please check your email inbox for a confirmation email to access the FREE resources.. we respect your privacy and will never share your email address with 3rd parties, 2 subjects appear together at the start of the piece. Have a look/listen to my fugue exposition: ( Log Out / The Episodes in a fugue are often used by the composer to modulate to different keys. This fugue in C major, the first fugue from the first book of Bach's Well-Tempered Clavier, presents several interesting aspects: The voices appear in the exposition in the unusual order of subject - answer - answer - subject. The Fugue starts with an exposition mm. The other connection between Prelude and Fugue is the meter. 11-12 help to modulate to G minor key which is closely related key to both F major and D minor. Here is the countersubject (highlighted yellow) at the start of my fugue: After the Exposition there comes an Episode. The countersubject here is divided between the Alto and the Bass. This Fugue has a “real” Answer, and would be styled as a “real” Fugue. Click on the link below each diagram to access an interactive version of these analysis, with scores. 26 between the Bass and the Alto. The first subject comes in the Alto voice, the tonal answer follows in the m. 5 in the Soprano in the Dominant key. Change ), Information, Analysis, Tips, Techniques, and Strategies for Learning the Music of World's Greatest Composer, A Guide to Learning the Music of Johann Sebastian Bach, Prelude and Fugue in C Major, BWV 846 from WTC I, Prelude and Fugue in D Minor, BWV 851 from WTC I, Prelude and Fugue in E Major, BWV 854 from WTC I, Prelude and Fugue in F Major, BWV 856 from WTC I, F (tonal answer, in the Dominant key; the first interval is changed), C (Tonic) beginning of the contra exposition. Bach masterfully resolves tension in the closing measures. Subscribe to our mailing list and get FREE music resources to your email inbox. How should this trill be played? Here is the subject I have written for my worked example of a fugue: This whole section of music is called The Exposition. Video lessons, worksheets and EXCLUSIVE CONTENT. In m. 9, which is the halfway of the piece, the climax starts to build up. It is interesting that Bach forms only one complete cadence in the entire Prelude. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. It consists of three elements: arpeggiated sixteenths, arpeggiated eights and long trills. 9-18. These can be seen in 2 forms: Example of a double fugue – J.S. Whereas the prelude is practically all in major, the fugue keeps moving towards autumnal minor keys. After the exposition Bach presents numerous stretti without any interruption. WTC The summery prelude is followed by a fugue that appears to evoke precisely this sort of association. A fugue starts with the 1st voice/part playing a melody/phrase called the Subject. This creates the impression of a very long upbeat, in which the tension toward Trill in Bach fugue WTC 1 BWV 851. I/4 Prelude and Fugue in C-sharp minor: I/5 Prelude and Fugue in D major: I/6 Prelude and Fugue in D minor: I/7 Prelude and Fugue in E-flat major: I/8 Prelude and Fugue in E-flat minor/D-sharp minor: I/9 Prelude and Fugue in E major: I/10 Prelude and Fugue in E minor: I/11 Prelude and Fugue in F major The subject ended on ^3, so the answer will end on ^7, allowing for an easy return to the tonic. The next subject entry is significant because it introduces the first Stretto. For more information, and discussion on this method and its results, please see the fugues main page and the bibliographical references. Both times the pitch is A, pitch interval an octave and time interval three quarters. Each of these fugues were proceeded by a prelude in the same key. The subject is played by the 1st voice in the tonic key. There are prominent dissonances created by the diminished seventh chords. For building up the climax Bach uses the Strettos, dissonant chords on the strong beats (diminished). Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. This overlapping adds thick texture and dimensions to the the piece. 1910] ... download 1 file . keyboard j-s-bach trills ornaments. lettersquash says: November 28, 2020 at 8:31 am. The Fugue is also dance-like. 4 in C sharp minor, BWV 849 on Google+, Ben Dunnett LRSM is the founder of Music Theory Academy. However, it is very important that you listen to some famous examples of fugues. In my coda I have used stretto to continue to increase the drama as the fugue ends: Hopefully this worked example will help you understand the basic meaning of what a fugue is and how it is composed. ! 1. In m. 14 the pedal point starts with a long trill on the b flat (V4/2). Keyscapes for J.S. In the second bar of the J.S. Section 30.8 Fugue Analysis. Read More. 18 in G sharp minor BMV 887 (WTC II), Share this post: The 2 subjects are then combined at a later point in the piece. on Facebook In the Strettos, Bach uses all possible voice combinations except Bass/Soprano (although again the same attempt of the subject in the Bass gives a feeling of the Bass/Soprano Stretto). Its primary aim is to move the piece to an appropriate conclusion. Sequences in mm. Both times the starting pitch is D, pitch interval is an octave and time interval is three quarters. Sample Title/Composer Performer Time Stream; The Well-Tempered Clavier (24), collection of preludes & fugues, Book I, BWV 846-869 (BC L80-103) 1 In m. 15, the upper voice reaches the highest point c”’ which can be considered as the climactic point. The piece is more solemn and feels like a wistful late summer. This idyllic pastoral image corresponds well with this piece. Mm. This section is written in G minor and it is concluded with a cadence in mm. Strettos, strong dissonances, minor keys, upward scales help to create the climax. It also exhibits his sense of proportions. Measures 9 and 10 are a little break before the third subject enters at measure 11 until measure 15. In entirety the fugue has a total of 3 subjects. Proportionally, m. 9 is a halfway of the Prelude. This prelude is dance-like instrumental type of piece. The pitch interval is an octave, time interval three quarters, beginning pitch is C. This Stretto is followed by the second Episode, which modulates in to D minor (parallel minor). M. 36, is the halfway of the piece. 1. This alternating of Subject entries and Episodes can continue in a fugue for as long as the composer wants. The Fugue shows Bach mastery of the contrapuntal writing. Can you see/hear the key changes? Bach d-minor Fugue in WTC 1 (BWV 851), we have. It may be divided into four short sections, (1) at Bar 2, (2) at Bar 3, (3) at Bar 4, and (4) at Bar 6. The odd numbered fugues are in major. When all the voices have entered this signals the end of the Exposition. 55-56. The Alto has the first countersubject at the same time. Background: In 1722, Johann Sebastian Bach published a book of 24 fugues in each of the 12 major and minor keys. Fugue #1 J. S. Bach, The Well-Tempered Clavier, volume 1 This thesis is intended as a music-theoretical account of stretto in the forty-eight fugues of the . IN COLLECTIONS. After you are confident that you have completed the analysis, compare your answers to mine (for your own benefit, do not look at these links until you have completed your own). Bach – Prelude and double fugue no. The Fugue is written in three parts and has 72 measures. The exposition is followed by the first episode in mm. From this point onwards, the music starts to go into the climax. This Fugue is architectural. An interesting feature of this episode is that it has the countersubject in the Bass. Overall, the Fugue has three Strettos (for details of the Strettos refer to the Appendix 2). Let us set out definitions first. Music21 is used to generate these visualisations. Real Answers! Analysis – Unpacking the B minor Fugue from WTC 1 Stephen Hung | September 2018 Last year I asserted that by one measure of statistical count, the second book of Bach’s Well-Tempered Clavier (WTC) is more chromatic than his first book. If it is an exact transposition of the subject then it is called a “real answer”. We are going to look at the basic structure of a fugue through a worked example. 57, 1952). This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. 45-46. WTC I: 1. Well Tempered Clavier Book I: Fugue D major The D major fugue is a very interesting piece, as there are some parallels to (the first part of) a French overture, with its ornamental lines and dotted notes (almost in the style of Jean Babtiste Lully; see also JS Bach’s Orchestral Suite Nr 2 in B minor, the gigues of the 1.French Suite and the 6. The music never stops. Reply. In mm. Thank you for subscribing. intelligent analysis of a fugue. Bach, WTC I, Fugue in E minor. The Second half goes into a climax. Bach's forty-eight fugues (Das wohltemperirte clavier) by Prout, Ebenezer, 1835-1909; Prout, Louis Beethoven. A subject is introduced at the start of the piece and answered in the usual way. 3 in C sharp major, BWV 848 Prelude & Fugue No. 2 in C minor, BWV 847 Prelude & Fugue No. The subject introduces all pitches of the F major scale. The Prelude is written in 12/8 and the Fugue in 3/8. This piece is 18 measures long and according to tonal areas can be divided into two parts: mm. The Subject is repeated in the entry of the 3rd voice (usually in the tonic, but at a different octave) and is “answered” by the 4th voice (if there is one), again in the dominant key. Therefore this set of two pieces is very united. The subject appears five times in all voices except the Bass (although the Bass has an attempt to make the subject in m. 35). Publication date [pref. A fugue is a contrapuntal composition for a number of separate parts or voices. Although it is written in 12/8 meter, it is not a gigue because its character is different from the gigue. 3 from Book I of Johann Sebastian Bach 's Well-Tempered Clavier , composed in 1722. 1-13. ): Measures 1-6 (p. 122) Measures 7-25 (p. 123) Measures 26-34 (p. 124) Commentary on Fugue 16 Analysis The fugue is in four voices entering in alt (A), Soprano (S), tenor (T) and bass (B). The pedal point starts in the Bass on the Dominant of the D minor. Usually, while one voice has arpeggios in sixteenths, the other voice has arpeggios in eighths or trills. 5-6 sequences are used to modulate to D minor key (parallel minor). Moreover, this Prelude and Fugue complements each other very well. e.g. Basic color mappings are: C = green, G = light blue, D = dark blue, A = violet, E = red, B = orange, and F = yellow. SHOW ALL. ⇒ 9 more: Fugue No.1 in C major, BWV 846 • Prelude No.2 in C minor, BWV 847 • Fugue No.2 in C minor, BWV 847 • Prelude No.5 in D major, BWV 850 • Fugue No.5 in D major, BWV 850 • Prelude No.6 in D minor, BWV 851 • Fugue No.6 in D minor, BWV 851 • Prelude No.21 in B-flat major, BWV 866 • Fugue No.21 in B-flat major, BWV 866 Arguably the most famous composer of fugues is Johann Sebastian Bach. Although the harmony is less dense, the tension is still growing. Two tritons are formed in the two upper voices e’-b’ flat and e’ flat-a’. As it was mentioned before, this Fugue is instrumental dance-like piece. The subject of this Fugue consists of eighth and sixteenth notes, which with an exception of the leap of the minor sixth move stepwise up and down. In m. 12, the long trill starts in the right hand. Assignment 1 Analysis of Bach Prelude in C major (WTC 1-1) Due: Tuesday, 1/22. In mm. The subject is played by the 1st voice in the tonic key. Usually a composer chooses to describe or define a fugue they have composed according to the number of parts it is written for. A detailed guide that analyzes the structural, harmonic and thematic frame of the Prelude and the Fugue. 1-2 establishes the Tonic key. So, the voice/part which has just played the Subject will go on to play the Countersubject whilst the next voice is playing the answer. In m.13, the third voice is added to help to build up tension. The first half of the Fugue has strong sense of the Tonic and Dominant keys and after that it modulates into D minor. Ask Question Asked 6 years, 8 months ago. The closing episode starts in m. 68. The tension is finally resolved in the last two measures by the final cadence in F major. For example, Fugue in F Major from WTC 1 is in the style of a passepied and resembles the passepied movement that Bach labeled in his Partita No. You will sometimes come across Double Fugues. Like Liked by 1 person. ( Log Out / The Soprano overlaps with the Alto, and Alto with the Bass. Subject Answer. He uses seven in the first half and seven in the second half of the piece. He is a music teacher, examiner, composer and pianist with over twenty years experience in music education. Bach’s Well-Tempered Clavier: In-depth Analysis and Interpretation. Music - University of … The Soprano voice has an embellished scale which reaches again the high g”. Fugue begins right after the Prelude. This Prelude shows his ability to write in the perpetual motion. It begins unaccented, after what can be called an “implied breath” on beat 1. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. J. S. Bach Fugue 16 Answers. A Countersubject often appears in the Exposition (and also later in the fugue). A fugue is a contrapuntal composition whose form features sections called expositions and episodes. The overall effect is graceful and esthetically pleasing. Analysis of J.S. While the Prelude shows more harmonic vertical thinking, the Fugue exhibits more linear thinking. The total number of the subjects is 14. The second Stretto is a three voice Stretto with two-voice overlap. 18-31. There are a total number of 14 entries (for list of a detailed analysis of subject and countersubject entries refer to Appendix 1). The first Stretto starts in mm. After the Subdominant in m. 17, the final cadence is formed in the last measure of the Prelude. Finally, Section 1.4 will establish the questions that the remaining chapters will address. recent scholarship is incorporated in Section 1.3, including discussion of corpus analysis. The second subject joins during the last measure of the first subject. TORRENT download. ( Log Out / The graph attempts to show the processes determining this prelude.1 WTC I/1 in C major – Fugue The subject of this fugue is one and a half measures long. Stretto literally means “drawn together”. At the same time both the Prelude and the Fugue are dance-like and have similar characters. Johann Sebastian Bach: WTC 1 . This piece is written in F major, which was often used for a pastoral scene. This section is followed by the third Episode which brings back the Tonic key. 1-8 and mm. The first part of the Prelude can be divided into a few sections. A fugue exposition is a section that contains at least one full statement of the subject of the fugue. The fugue dataset. An analysis of J.S Bach's Prelude and Fugue No.1 in C major, BWV 846, from the Well Tempered Clavier Book 1. The Coda in a fugue is a final section of music that often includes stretto. This is a sign of returning to a Tonic (F major) key. Active 4 years, 4 months ago. In m. 10, the subject enters in the Bass in the Tonic key, while countersubject is in the Soprano. First, mm. 26 between the Bass and the Alto. Thank you. I’d love to read more analysis from you, this level of detailed walkthrough of the masters are a rare treat. The Subject is remarkable for its elaborate character and in length it exceeds any of the other Fugues in this series. Real Answers! I was searching for information on the Schwnencke measure and found your detailed analysis of the Prelude. Overall, the Fugue has three Strettos (for details of the Strettos refer to the Appendix 2). It resembles Passepied which usually is a faster version of the minuet. One explanation for this might be that JS Bach may have re-used a fugue which was originally composed in D minor and transposed it into D# minor, in order to include it in the WTC book 1, which might be why he applied this key instead of Eb minor for the fugue. Passepied in the dance suites usually appeared in pairs (da capo). The long trills on the high notes also help to create tension. This overlapping technique is used by composers to increase the emotional tension of the piece. These annotations are based on several musicological sources as well as on our own analysis. This brings added variety to the entries of the Subject later on in the fugue. The upper voice reaches the g#” and a”. Although m. 16 is still intense because of the seventh chords and the secondary dominant, tension is starting to resolve. This Fugue also shows Bach’s talent to combine the instrumental dance style with the contrapuntal writing. This Stretto is written in three voices, with two-voice overlap. Each part/voices enters in imitation of each other. Analyze the Prelude and Fugue from Bach's Well-Tempered Clavier. In the manner of Cyrano de Bergerac, however, he needs a little assistance. You can see from my fugue example that the answer (orange notes) has been changed and so it is a tonal answer. First of all, there is an immediate transition between Prelude and Fugue. The first Stretto starts in mm. Here is the subject I have written for my worked example of a fugue: This whole section of music is called The Exposition. 3-4 have sequences where tension goes up and down because of the secondary dominant chords and resolutions. Here is my analysis (color-coded and all! The Bass overlaps with the Alto, and the Alto with the Soprano. 7-8 there is an attempt to make a cadence in D minor. Each of the two volumes of the Well-tempered Clavier contains one prelude and one fugue in every major and minor key. A second subject is then introduced and also answered. In m. 54, in the Bass voice, the scale starting from G is going up. Fugue 10 (1:03 min) Fugue 22 (3:30 min) Fugue 11 (1:12 min) Fugue 23 (3:28 min) Fugue 12 (5:21 min) Fugue 24 (8:15 min) Comment: Fugues 8, 12, 14, 18, 20 and 24 are probably too long for a project. Immediately, after this cadence, begins the third Stretto. Have a look/listen to this excellent video which shows the Art of Fugue by Bach: There are various other forms of fugues that you may come across. The episode is in the Dominant key. In m. 35 in the Bass there is an attempt to make the subject. Here is the 1st episode of my fugue example which comes directly after the exposition: After the Episode in a fugue there is usually another entry (or entries) of the Subject. 60-63) and in m. 63 it reaches g” which is the climactic point. There are many examples of fugues. I have decided to use stretto after my 2nd episode to increase the tension as we move towards the end of my fugue: Can you see how each voices enters before the previous voice has finished playing its subject? D (g minor) one sixteenth note added to the subject, C (Tonic) This subject is altered (embellished), Beginning pitch of the subject (beginning pitch of the following entry). Bach – Well-Tempered Clavier The outer ones (A and B) are on the tonic, while the inner ones (S, T) are on the dominant. An episode is a connecting passage of music in a fugue and is usually made up of a development of the music that has already been heard in the Exposition. Countersubject is some sort of extension of this subject. This fugue, as the Passepied starts with the upbeat, and its subject is roughly four measures long (also typical for Passepied). There is an evident relationship between this Prelude and Fugue. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. A countersubject acts like an accompaniment to the Subject and Answer. The next subject entry is in the Alto voice in the Dominant, while the countersubject is featured in the Soprano. The subject appears again in m. 18, in the Soprano, in the Tonic key. Have a look/listen to my fugue exposition: Contrasting keys play a vital role in the composition of a fugue. 1 in C major, BWV 846 Prelude & Fugue No. “a fugue in 4 parts”, “a fugue in 3 voices”. Have a look/listen to my 2nd episode below. on Twitter Texture of two voices is consistent throughout the piece (except for one measure). But at least he doesn’t have a big nose. A fugue starts with the 1st voice/part playing a melody/phrase called the Subject. Also all the pitches of the fugue subject (although not in the same order) can be found in the first two measures of the Prelude. download 18 Files download 11 Original. Analysis of Bach's Fugue BWV 847 in C minor (WTC I) José Rodríguez Alvira ©2011 José Rodríguez Alvira. ( Log Out / It consists from sixteenth notes which also (except one minor third leap) move stepwise. I have included this in my fugue example, but in the dominant key: These new entries of the subject are followed by another Episode (second episode in Green below). We will now turn to analysis of fugue. A general Introduction covers topics like the origins of the WTC, the "well-tempered" scale, the clavier at Bach's time, the history of the prelude, and the background of fugue composition. Richard Atkinson analyzes the amazing counterpoint of the D major fugue from The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book II, by J. S. Bach. This dataset gives a reference analysis for the 24 fugues of the first book of Bach's Well-Tempered Clavier (WTC I, BWV 846-893) and the 12 first fugues from Shostakovich 24 Preludes and Fugues (op. A (d minor parallel key) The halfway of the fugue. Prelude ends with no long chord, no fermata. The 2nd voice plays the “answer” in dominant key (a 5th higher or a 4th lower) – this transposed line in the 2nd voice is called the answer. In the Exposition the subject 1st appears in the tonic key. However, it does not have an iambic feeling. Analysis of Fugue 2, WTC 1, BWV 847 Exposition (8) subject m. 1 i (2) answer (tonal) m. 3 v (2) - counter subject (CS) episode m. 5 (2) - 1st 6 notes of CS inverted subject m. 7 i (2) - CS (two components) Middle (13) episode m. 9 (2) - 1st 5 notes of S, 16ths from CS ME1 m. 11 III (2) - CS X 2 episode m. 13 (2) - 8ths and inv. J.S. Establishment of D minor key in m. 8 marks the end of the first half of the Prelude. The next section can be treated as a contra exposition in mm. The intervals of the tritone are very prominent (this is another connection with the Prelude). The Well-Tempered-Clavier, Book I / Part 1 (WTC 1) French Title: Le Clavier bien tempéré, Premier livre: Spanish Title Works: Preludes & Fugues (24), BWV 846-869 Prelude & Fugue No. Thus, the exposition ends on the tonic-chord, but in a very weak form in the second position without the tonic (beginning of m.7). The pitch interval is an octave, time interval three quarters, beginning pitch is C. This Stretto is followed by the second Episode, which modulates in to D minor (parallel minor). It is a little bit similar to Sicilian because of its meter, and graceful character.